Pugwash Movement Collection
The Pugwash Movement Collection testifies to the anti-nuclear and anti-war activities of intellectuals from around the world during the Cold War era. The collection contains books and magazines, including the proceedings from the Pugwash Conferences, which were held every year in different city in the world. It also contains Encyclopaedia moderna, the most important journal for the history of anti-nuclear and peace movements in Yugoslavia. The Yugoslav government mostly did not look favourably upon the activities of the Pugwash movement’s members in Yugoslavia.
Zagreb Trg Josipa Jurja Strossmayera 14, Croatia 10000
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Name of collection
- Pugwash Movement Collection
Provenance and cultural activities
The Pugwash Movement Collection was created by collecting books, journal and other publications (brochures and leaflets) at the Institute for the Philosophy of Science and Peace (today the Philosophy of Science Division of the Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science) of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts). The establishment of this Institute in 1965 is directly tied to the so-called Pugwash Movement or the Pugwash Conference. The word “peace” in the name of the Institute referred to the Pugwash Movement. The founder of the Institute and the key person who initiated the membership of Croatian and Yugoslav intellectuals in the Pugwash Movement was Ivan Supek.
Pugwash is a small village Nova Scotia (Canada), where the first conference was held in 1957, so the movement was named after it. A Pugwash native, steel magnate Cyrus Stephen Eaton, hosted the first conference, which was based on a manifesto drawn up by Bertrand Russell and Albert Einstein in 1955 that highlighted the peril posed by nuclear weapons and called for disarmament and for world leaders to seek peaceful resolutions to international conflicts. Supek supported these goals throughout his life.
Since the foundation of the Institute, until the middle of the 1990s, the Institute has received a relatively large number of different publications, leaflets, brochures, books, and above all the proceedings of the Pugwash Conferences that were held every year in different city in the world. Moreover, since 1966, the Institute has published the journal Encyclopaedia moderna, with something about the Pugwash Movement in each issue.
When Supek became the president of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts (HAZU) in 1991, he was no longer as closely connected to the Institute. The Institute was merged into the Institute of the History of Science and “lost” the word “peace” from its name, and the connection to the Pugwash movement vanished with time. However, the Pugwash Conference and its sections continued to send their publications (books, magazines, brochures and leaflets) to the same address until the beginning of the 21st century (2002/2003). Dr Bojan Marotti, as a staff member of the Institute since the mid-1980s, kept them in the Institute, and after a few years, he organised the materials to make them searchable and usable. The collection was open to visitors at the Institute of the History and Philosophy of Science. As a part of its Open Doors Day, each year from 2011 to 2014 the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts organised tours for observation and use of the Pugwash Movement Collection. The collection, however, was not used by many people. So, in 2014 Bojan Marotti, in agreement with Vedrana Juričić (the head of the Library of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts), turned the collection over to the Library.
The collection was incorporated into the Library and no longer exists as a separate collection, but all of the publications are available to the public and searchable through a digital catalogue. The journals are included in the Library’s collection of periodicals, and the books in the Library’s collection of books. A smaller portion of the material (brochures and leaflets) was handed over to the HAZU Archives. The Archives are currently in talks with Prof. Vladimir Knapp, a retired professor at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing (University of Zagreb), a long-time active member of the Pugwash Movement, who owns a private collection on the Pugwash Movement (interview with Marotti, Bojan; interview with Juričić, Vedrana).
The Yugoslav Communist government was not pleased with the existence of the Pugwash Movement. The Yugoslav members of the movement usually considered themselves a sort of "underground" movement. Dr Bojan Marotti, one of the members of the Pugwash Movement, said in an interview for COURAGE: "While I was working in the Croatian/Yugoslav section of the Pugwash Conference. I was always under the impression that I was doing something illegal. There was a sense of conspiracy. For example, if we were to vote for a document, we did not know whether we could publicise it or not. Is it a secret or not? My impression has always been that we were doing something conspiratorial. Ivan Supek did not act like this because he wanted it to be all legitimate" (interview with Marotti, Bojan). The Yugoslav government did not like the Pugwash Movement because their members expressed views that were too idealistic, mostly due to demands for the immediate disarmament of the world's states. Moreover, after the Second World War the Yugoslav regime considered the possibility of developing nuclear weapons (Knapp 2015), so Supek's demands on disarmament and the end of the nuclear arms race could be seen as opposed to the development of Yugoslav military power, which was a highly militarised state.
This collection is a valuable resource for the study of the history of the global anti-nuclear and peace movement in the world, especially the relationship between Yugoslavia and the Pugwash Movement, but so far it has been very little used.
Description of content
By the end of the 20th century, the Institute for the Philosophy of Science and Peace (now the Philosophy of Science Division of the Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science) of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts (HAZU) had received a relatively large quantity of different publications, leaflets, brochures, journals and books (including the proceedings of the Pugwash Conferences). Moreover, since 1966, the Institute has published the Encyclopaedia Moderna, a journal in which each issue included a column dedicated to the Pugwash Movement.
At the beginning of the 21st century, Bojan Marotti organised the collection on shelves in the HAZU Philosophy of Science Division of the Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science. It included over 400 publications, primarily books and magazines, but also some leaflets, brochures and similar smaller publications. In order to make this material more accessible, Marotti handed over the Collection to the HAZU Library in five medium-size (parcel) boxes. It consists of approximately 80 books, 30 titles of serial publications in multiple volumes, and dozens of leaflets. The Library assigned the leaflets and similar minor publications to the HAZU Archives, while books and serial publications were incorporated into the Library’s collections (collection of books and collection of journals).
All of the publications pertain to the history of the global peace and anti-nuclear movement. They cover the period from the mid-1960s to the late 20th century, mostly in English, and less in Croatian and French. The collection includes Joseph Rotblat’s book A History of the Conferences on Science and World Affairs (Prague: Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, 1967), and the journals Encyclopaedia Moderna, Disarmament and Arms Control: an International Quarterly Journal, Amnesty International Report, Peace Review: the International Quarterly of World Peace.
- publications (books, newspapers, articles, press clippings): 100-499
Stakeholder(s) of the collection
- Juričić, Vedrana
Geographical scope of recent operation
Date of founding
Place of founding
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Creator(s) of content
Important events in the history of the collection
- completely open to the public
Author(s) of this page
- Mihaljević, Josip
“Hrvatska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti - Ivan Supek – Biografija” [“Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts - Ivan Supek – Biography”]. Accessed July 12, 2018, http://info.hazu.hr/hr/clanovi_akademije/osobne_stranice/ivan_supek
Ilakovac, Ksenofont, ur. 2013. Spomenica preminulim akademicima: Ivan Supek : 1915.-2007. [Memorial to deceased academics: Ivan Supek: 1915-2007]. Zagreb: Hrvatska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti.
Ilakovac, Ksenofont. 2007. Ivan Supek (1915.-2007.). Ljetopis Hrvatske akademije znanosti i umjetnosti za godinu 2007 [Yearbook of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts for year 2007]: 503-507.
Ilakovac, Ksenofont. 2013. „Ivan Supek (1915.-2007.): Život i djelo“ [„Ivan Supek (1915-2007): Life and Work“]. In Ksenofont Ilakovac (ed.), Spomenica preminulim akademicima: Ivan Supek : 1915.-2007. [Memorial to deceased academics: Ivan Supek: 1915-2007], pp.11-83. Zagreb: Hrvatska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti.
Juras, Jure. 1966. „Novi institut Jugoslavenske akademije znanosti i umjetnosti“ [New institute of the Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts]. Encyclopaedia Moderna 1, no. 1: 91-92.
Knapp, Vladimir. 1995. „Pagvaške konferencije u svijetu i Hrvatska pagvaška grupa“ [Pugwash conferences and Croatian Pugwash Group]. Društvena istraživanja 4, no. 1(15): 71-81.
Knapp, Vladimir. 2013. „Ivan Supek i hrvatski znanstvenici u pagvaškom pokretu“ [„Ivan Supek and Croatian Scholars in the Pugwash Movement”]. In Ilakovac, Ksenofont, (ed.), Spomenica preminulim akademicima: Ivan Supek : 1915.-2007. [Memorial to deceased academics: Ivan Supek: 1915-2007], pp. 85-110. Zagreb: Hrvatska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti.
Knapp, Vladimir. 2015. „Ivan Supek i jugoslavenski nuklearni program“ [„Ivan Supek and Yugoslav Nuclear Programme“]. In Paušek-Baždar, Snježana and Ksenofont Ilakovac, eds. Ivan Supek: (1915.-2007.): u povodu 100. obljetnice rođenja [Ivan Supek: (1915.-2007.): On the occasion of the 100th anniversary of his birth], pp. 89-114. Zagreb: Hrvatska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti.
Kolarić, Juraj. 1973. “Encyclopedia moderna, Časopis za sintezu znanosti, umjetnosti i društvene prakse, Izdaje: Institut za filozofiju znanosti i mir Jugoslavenske akademije znanosti i umjetnosti” [“Encyclopaedia Moderna, a journal for the synthesis of science, art and social practice published by the Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts”]. Bogoslovska smotra 43, no. 2–3: 360–363.
Kutleša, Stipe & Filip Hameršak. 2015. „Supek, Ivan“. Hrvatski biografski leksikon [Croatian biographical lexicon]. Accessed July 10, 2018. http://hbl.lzmk.hr/clanak.aspx?id=11903
Moguš, Milan et al. 2011. HAZU: Hrvatska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti (1861.-2011.) [HAZU: Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts (1861.-2011.)]. Zagreb: Hrvatska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti.
Paušek-Baždar, Snježana and Ksenofont Ilakovac, eds. 2015. Ivan Supek: [1915.-2007.]: u povodu 100. obljetnice rođenja [Ivan Supek: (1915.-2007.): On the occasion of the 100th anniversary of his birth]. Zagreb: Hrvatska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti.
Redakcija EM. 1966. „Riječ redakcije“ [“Word of the Editorial”]. Encyclopaedia Moderna 1, no. 1: 1-4.
Rotblat, Joseph, ed. 1982. Proceeding of the First Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs: Pugwash, Nova Scotia, Canada, 7-10 July 1957, London: Pugwash Council.
Rotblat, Joseph. 1967. Pugwash: A History of the Conferences on Science and World Affairs. Prague: Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences.
Senker, Boris. 2015. „Heretik Ivana Supeka – primjerna biografska drama iz šezdesetih godina prošloga stoljeća“ [Heretic by Ivan Supek – A Paradigmatic Biographical Play of the 1960s]. In Paušek-Baždar, Snježana and Ksenofont Ilakovac, eds. Ivan Supek: [1915.-2007.]: u povodu 100. obljetnice rođenja [Ivan Supek: (1915.-2007.): On the occasion of the 100th anniversary of his birth], pp. 45-52. Zagreb: Hrvatska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti.
Supek, Ivan. 1980. Krivovjernik na ljevici: političke uspomene, humanistička poruka [Heretic on the Left: political memories, humanistic message]. Bristol: B C Review Publications.
Supek, Ivan. 1983. Krunski svjedok protiv Hebranga [Crown Witness against Hebrang]. Chicago: Markanton Press.
Supek, Ivan. 1996. Povijesne meditacije [Historical meditations]. Zagreb: AGM.
Juričić, Vedrana, interview by Mihaljević, Josip, July 06, 2018. COURAGE Registry Oral History Collection
Marotti, Bojan, interview by Mihaljević, Josip, July 02, 2018. COURAGE Registry Oral History Collection